Documentos (recomendações, normas, entre outros) de diversas entidades internacionais acerca dos limites de exposição à radiação eletromagnética.
Radiofrequency Interference with Medical Devices
The past few years have seen increased reports that medical devices, such as pacemakers, apnea monitors, electrically powered wheelchairs, etc., have failed to operate correctly because of interference from various emitters of radiofrequency energy. This condition is called radiofrequency interference (RFI). The consequences of these failures range from inconvenience to serious injuries and death. Reasons for this problem are twofold: 1) increasing numbers of electronically controlled medical devices with inadequate electronic protection against RFI, and 2) a significant increase in the number of RF sources in the environment. Medical devices are widely used outside the hospital and may be attached to, or implanted in, patients. Portable wireless communications equipment, including cellular phones, handheld transceivers, and vehicle mounted transceivers, comprise one of the largest sources of RFI. Some medical devices are especially sensitive to the type of digital modulation that some of the wireless communications devices utilize. (…) COMAR recommends that the various parties involved in the manufacture and use of RFI prone medical devices take steps to avoid serious RFI problems that may lead to safety hazards. Medical device manufacturers should design and test their products to ensure conformance with current RFI standards and educate the users of their devices about the possible symptoms of potential RFI. If there exists the possibility of RFI problems to medical devices, steps should be taken to ensure that all sources of RF energy be kept at a sufficient distance.
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Committee on Man and Radiation (COMAR)
Product standard to demonstrate the compliance of wireless communication devices, with the basic restrictions and exposure limit values related to human exposure to electromagnetic fields in the frequency range from 300 MHz to 6 GHz: devices used next to the ear
This product standard applies to wireless communication devices used in close proximity to the human ear (e.g. mobile phones, wireless headsets). The applicable frequency range is from 300 MHz to 6 GHz. The objective of this standard is to demonstrate the compliance of such devices with the basic restrictions and exposure limit values related to human exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields. For devices used next to the body or in front of the face the applicable product standard is EN 50566:2017. For low power devices the applicable product standard is EN 50663:2017.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC)
The digital standard known as the Global System for Mobile (GSM) has captured a large share of the global cellular market. This book aims to bridge the gap between a reader’s basic knowledge of telecommunications and the complexities of the 5000-page GSM technical specification. It describes the system as a whole, covering all aspects of the standard, including mobile stations, switching equipment, the radio interface, infrastructure, transmission methods, and signalling protocols. System architects involved in the design of personal communications systems will find the book to be a complete description of the GSM communications system. It also may serve as a general introduction to digital cellular systems.
Cell & Sys, Michel MOULY and Marie-Bernadette PAUTET
Electromagnetic Compatibility of Medical Devices with Mobile Communications
The compatibility of mobile communication equipment with medical devices is an area where much published information and guidance is conflicting. We have hence organised a large study, based on research conducted at 18 locations including hospitals and MDA evaluation centres. Data were gathered for 178 different models of medical device using a wide range of radio handsets. Overall, in 23% of tests medical devices suffered electromagnetic interference (EMI) from handsets. 43% of these interference incidents would have had a direct impact on patient care, and were rated as serious.
Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA)
OET Bulletin 65, Supplement C – Evaluating Compliance with FCC Guidelines for Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields, Additional Information for Evaluating Compliance of Mobile and Portable Devices with FCC Limits for Human Exposure
In August, 1996, the Commission adopted a Report and Order in ET Docket 93-62 amending its rules for evaluating the environmental effects of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields. Specifically, the Commission adopted new guidelines and procedures for evaluating human exposure to RF emissions from FCC-regulated transmitters and facilities. As a part of this proceeding, new limits were adopted for human exposure to RF emissions from certain mobile and portable devices. Two subsequent FCC Orders were issued to refine and clarify the decisions adopted in the original Report and Order. A revised version of OET Bulletin 65, “Evaluating Compliance with FCC Guidelines for Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields” was also issued. One of the areas discussed in Bulletin 65 is compliance with the limits adopted by the Commission for safe exposure to RF emissions due to mobile and portable devices such as non-fixed wireless transmitters and hand-held cellular telephones. The first edition of Supplement C (97-01) was released in 1997. The purpose of this revised supplement is to provide parties filing applications for equipment authorization with guidance on complying with the latest requirements using up-to-date test procedures. This supplement is not intended, however, to establish mandatory procedures, and other methods and procedures may be acceptable if based on sound engineering practice.