Limites de Exposição à Radiação Eletromagnética

Documentos (recomendações, normas, entre outros) de diversas entidades internacionais acerca dos limites de exposição à radiação eletromagnética.

Título Extremely Low Frequency Fields – Environmental Health Criteria Monograph No.238
Resumo This EHC addresses the possible health effects of exposure to extremely low frequency (>0 Hz – 100 kHz) electric and magnetic fields. By far the majority of studies concern the health effects resulting from exposure to power frequency (50–60 Hz) magnetic fields; a few studies address the effects of exposure to power frequency electric fields. In addition, a number of studies have addressed the effects of exposure to the very low frequency (VLF, 3–30 kHz) switched gradient magnetic fields used in Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and, more commonly, the weaker VLF fields emitted by visual display units (VDU’s) and televisions.
Fonte World Health Organization (WHO)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor WHO
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://www.who.int/peh-emf/publications/elf_ehc/en
Referência EHC Monograph 238
Data Agosto 2016
Título Intermediate Frequencies (IF)
Resumo A relatively small number of studies has been conducted on the biological effects or health risks of IF fields. This is due, in part, to the fact that fewer types of devices produce fields in this frequency range. But because these devices now have a high consumer and industrial market penetration, it is important to evaluate their impact on human health. This information sheet addresses the known health effects of IF fields, and offers recommendations for further study.
Fonte World Health Organization (WHO)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor World Health Organization (WHO)
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://www.who.int/
peh-emf/publications/facts/en/
intermediatefrequencies_infosheet.pdf
Referência
Data Fevereiro 2005
Título Broadcast Towers and Health
Resumo The Committee on Electromagnetic Energy Public Health Issues, includes representatives from the Department of Communications, Information Technology and the Arts, ARPANSA, the Australian Communications Authority (ACA) and the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC). The information in the EME series fact sheets has been prepared to help explain the current thinking on mobile phone communications and health, and is based on substantiated scientific research.
Fonte Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA)
Origem Austrália
Autor/Editor ARPANSA
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://www.arpansa.gov.au/
understanding-radiation/radiation-sources/more-radiation-sources/
broadcast-towers
Referência ARPANSA Fact Sheet – Broadcast Towers and Health
Data Março 2015

Outras fontes

Linhas de Transporte de Energia Elétrica

Título Extremely Low Frequency Fields – Environmental Health Criteria Monograph No.238
Resumo This EHC addresses the possible health effects of exposure to extremely low frequency (>0 Hz – 100 kHz) electric and magnetic fields. By far the majority of studies concern the health effects resulting from exposure to power frequency (50–60 Hz) magnetic fields; a few studies address the effects of exposure to power frequency electric fields. In addition, a number of studies have addressed the effects of exposure to the very low frequency (VLF, 3–30 kHz) switched gradient magnetic fields used in Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and, more commonly, the weaker VLF fields emitted by visual display units (VDU’s) and televisions.
Fonte World Health Organization (WHO)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor WHO
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://www.who.int/peh-emf/publications/elf_ehc/en
Referência EHC Monograph 238
Data Agosto 2016
Título Static and Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Fields
Resumo Presentation from World Health Organization, that reviews our current state of knowledge of fields that are either static or have a frequency below 300 Hz. These frequencies are particularly important from a public health standpoint because of their widespread use for the generation and transmission of electrical power.
Fonte World Health Organization (WHO)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor World Health Organization (WHO)
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://www.who.int/
peh-emf/about/en/Static_and_ELF_Fields.pdf
Referência
Data Janeiro 2004
Título Electric and Magnetic Fields Associated With the Use of Electric Power, Questions and Answers
Resumo Electricity powers our appliances, office equipment, and countless other devices that we use to make life safer, easier, and more interesting. Use of electric power is something we take for granted. However, some have wondered whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced through the generation, transmission, and use of electric power power-frequency EMF, 50 or 60 hertz (Hz) might adversely affect our health. Numerous research studies and scientific reviews have been conducted to address this question.EMF exposures are complex and exist in the home and workplace as a result of all types of electrical equipment and building wiring as well as a result of nearby power lines. This booklet explains the basic principles of electric and magnetic fields, provides an overview of the results of major research studies, and summarizes conclusions of the expert review panels to help you reach your own conclusions about EMF-related health concerns.
Fonte National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) EMF Research and Public Information Dissemination Program (EMF-RAPID)
Origem Estados Unidos da América
Autor/Editor EMF-RADIP
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://www.niehs.nih.gov/
health/materials/electric_and_magnetic_fields_
associated_with_the_use_of_electric_power
_questions_and_answers_english_508.pdf
Referência
Data Junho 2002
Título The Risk Evaluation – An Evaluation of the Possible Risks From Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMFs) From Power Lines, Internal Wiring, Electrical Occupations and Appliances
Resumo The Risk Evaluation analyzes the potential human health risks of magnetic field exposure. Specifically, this document provides an evaluation of the animal, laboratory and human evidence that shows how exposure to 50/60 Hz magnetic fields may or may not increase human health risks. The Risk Evaluation is based on the results of published research studies, with emphasis on new studies, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Working Group Report, and the results of the California EMF Program Studies.
Fonte California EMF Program
Origem Estados Unidos da América
Autor/Editor Raymond Neutra, Vincent DelPizzo, Geraldine Lee
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://www.bcuc.com/
Documents/Proceedings/2009/DOC_23700_C3-3.pdf
Referência
Data Junho 2002
Título NIEHS Report on Health Effects from Exposure to Power-Line Frequency Electric and Magnetic Fields
Resumo In 1992, under the Energy Policy Act (PL 102-486, Section 2118), the U.S. Congress instructed the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), National Institutes of Health and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to direct and manage a program of research and analysis aimed at providing scientific evidence to clarify the potential for health risks from exposure to ELF-EMF. This resulted in formation of the EMF Research and Public Information Dissemination Program (EMF-RAPID Program). The EMF-RAPID Program had three basic components: 1) a research program focusing on health effects research primarily through mechanistic studies of ELF-EMF and engineering research targeting measurement, characterization and management of ELF-EMF; 2) information compilation and dissemination through brochures, public outreach and an ELF-EMF information line for communicating with the public; and 3) a health assessment including an analysis of the research data aimed at summarizing the strength of the evidence for evaluation of any hazard possibly arising from exposure to ELF-EMF. The NIEHS was directed to oversee the health effects research and evaluation and the DOE was given responsibility for engineering research aimed at characterizing and mitigating these fields. Under the Energy Policy Act, the Director of the NIEHS is mandated upon completion of the EMF-RAPID Program to provide a report outlining the possible human health risks associated with exposure to ELF-EMF. This document responds to this requirement of the law.
Fonte National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) EMF Research and Public Information Dissemination Program (EMF-RAPID)
Origem Estados Unidos da América
Autor/Editor Dr. Kenneth Olden
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://www.bpa.gov/
Projects/Projects/I-5/2012documents/EMF-NIEHS-execsum.pdf
Referência NIH Publication No. 99-4493
Data Maio 1999
Título Manual for Measuring Occupational Electric and Magnetic Field Exposures
Resumo The purpose of this manual is to assist investigators in developing methods for occupational exposure assessments for electric and magnetic fields (EMF). Scientific reports that associate EMF with increased risks of various diseases have led to exposure assessments for the purposes of research, source assessment, and the surveillance of worker exposures. To provide guidance for these studies, methods that have been used successfully to measure EMF are summarized and presented in a standard format. The scope of the manual is methods for measuring occupational EMF with frequencies below 30 kHz. This covers most fields resulting directly from DC or 50/60 Hz AC electricity, as well as common electric and electronic equipment such as Video Display Terminals (VDT). In this manual, exposure assessment protocols are classified either as complete methods or partial methods. Complete methods are sets of instructions for the sampling strategy, calibration, measurement, data management and calculation of EMF exposure metrics. The exposure metric and other information about the method are contained in a summary table accompanied by a critique of the method’s strengths and weaknesses. Partial methods are essentially parts of a full method that emphasize important aspects of EMF exposure assessments: sampling strategies, spot measurement surveys, personal monitoring, area monitoring, measuring EMF characteristics, measuring EMFs from sources, walkthrough monitoring, quality control, calibration, data management, and calculating exposure metrics. By combining aspects of these complete and partial methods, industrial hygienists and other investigators can assemble protocols specifically tailored to assess EMF exposures for different purposes, applications, and work environments.
Fonte National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
Origem Estados Unidos da América
Autor/Editor Bowman et al.
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/98-154
Referência NIOSH Publication No. 98-154
Data Outubro 1998

Estações de Difusão

Título Broadcast Towers and Health
Resumo The Committee on Electromagnetic Energy Public Health Issues, includes representatives from the Department of Communications, Information Technology and the Arts, ARPANSA, the Australian Communications Authority (ACA) and the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC). The information in the EME series fact sheets has been prepared to help explain the current thinking on mobile phone communications and health, and is based on substantiated scientific research.
Fonte Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA)
Origem Austrália
Autor/Editor ARPANSA
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://www.arpansa.gov.au/
understanding-radiation/radiation-sources/more-radiation-sources/
broadcast-towers
Referência ARPANSA Fact Sheet – Broadcast Towers and Health
Data Março 2015
Título Evaluating Compliance with FCC Guidelines for Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields: Additional Information for Radio andTelevision Broadcast Stations
Resumo This document is designed to be used in connection with the FCC’s OET Bulletin 65, Version 97-01. The information in this document provides additional detailed information that can be used for evaluating compliance of AM and FM radio broadcast stations as well as of television broadcast stations with FCC guidelines for exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. However, users of this document should also consult Bulletin 65 for complete information on FCC policies, guidelines, compliance-related issues and methods for achieving compliance.
Fonte Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
Origem Estados Unidos da América
Autor/Editor Robert F. Cleveland, Jr., David M. Sylvar, Jerry L. Ulcek
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://transition.fcc.gov/
Bureaus/Engineering_Technology/Documents/
bulletins/oet65/oet65a.pdf
Referência SUPPLEMENT A (Edition 97-01) to OET BULLETIN 65
Data Agosto 1997

Fornos Micro-ondas

Título Microwave Ovens and their Hazards
Resumo Information Sheet discussing the operation and safety aspects of microwave ovens used in the home.
Fonte Canadia Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS)
Origem Canadá
Autor/Editor CCOHS
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://www.ccohs.ca/
oshanswers/phys_agents/microwave_ovens.html
Referência
Data Agosto 2018
Título Microwave ovens
Resumo This Information Sheet discusses the operation and safety aspects of microwave ovens used in the home. More details about the nature of electromagnetic fields and health effects of radiofrequency and microwave fields are available in WHO Fact Sheets 182 and 183.
Fonte World Health Organization (WHO)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor World Health Organization (WHO)
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://www.who.int/
peh-emf/publications/facts/en/
microwaveovens_infosheet.pdf
Referência
Data Fevereiro 2005

Outros

Título Electromagnetic Fields and Public Health – Static electric and magnetic fields
Resumo The International EMF Project of the World Health Organization (WHO) has recently reviewed the health implications of high static field exposure and highlighted the importance of public health protection for medical staff and patients (particularly children and pregnant women) and workers in industries producing high field magnets (Environmental Health Criteria, 2006).
Fonte World Health Organization (WHO)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor WHO
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://www.who.int/
peh-emf/publications/facts/fs299/en
Referência Fact Sheet 299
Data Janeiro 2006
Título Static Fields – Environmental Health Criteria Monograph No.232
Resumo This monograph represents the most thorough health risk assessment ever undertaken for the static magnetic fields that are being increasingly used in medicine, industry and comerce.
Fonte World Health Organization (WHO)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor WHO
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://www.who.int/
peh-emf/publications/reports/ehcstatic/en
Referência EHC Monograph 232
Data Janeiro 2006
Título Effects of EMF on the Environment
Resumo This information sheet summarizes the current scientific understanding on the effects of exposure to EMF fields on the living environment, across the electromagnetic spectrum in the frequency range 0-300 GHz. This range covers all frequencies that are emitted into the environment through use of EMF technology. Recommendations are also given for further research to fill gaps in knowledge needed to better assess EMF environmental impacts.
Fonte World Health Organization (WHO)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor World Health Organization (WHO)
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://www.who.int/
peh-emf/publications/facts/en
/envimpactemf_infosheet.pdf
Referência
Data Fevereiro 2005
Título Intermediate Frequencies (IF)
Resumo A relatively small number of studies has been conducted on the biological effects or health risks of IF fields. This is due, in part, to the fact that fewer types of devices produce fields in this frequency range. But because these devices now have a high consumer and industrial market penetration, it is important to evaluate their impact on human health. This information sheet addresses the known health effects of IF fields, and offers recommendations for further study.
Fonte World Health Organization (WHO)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor World Health Organization (WHO)
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://www.who.int/
peh-emf/publications/facts/en/
intermediatefrequencies_infosheet.pdf
Referência
Data Fevereiro 2005
Título Guidance on determining compliance of exposure to pulsed and complex non-sinusoidal waveforms below 100 kHz with ICNIRP guidelines
Resumo The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has published guidelines for limiting exposure to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields (ICNIRP 1998a, b) and has provided frequency dependent basic restrictions and reference levels from which a hazard assessment for exposures to electric and magnetic fields can be made. This document provides clarification for assessing compliance with the guidelines for pulsed and complex non-sinusoidal waveforms with frequency components predominantly up to 100 kHz. The approaches described may be helpful to product standards setting bodies concerned with metrology. In the frequency range up to 100 kHz there are a number of sources of non-sinusoidal magnetic fields with the potential to exceed the reference levels for exposures specified in the ICNIRP guidelines. Common sources include electronic article surveillance gates, demagnetizers, electronic security systems, and metal detectors, and these generate predominantly magnetic fields. Therefore, this statement focuses mainly on magnetic fields; however, this can be readily extended to electric fields.
Fonte International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor ICNIRP
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://www.icnirp.org/
cms/upload/publications/ICNIRPpulsed.pdf
Referência
Data Março 2003
Título Possible Health Risks to the General Public from the Use of Security and Similar Devices
Resumo The objective of this executive summary is to address the possible adverse effects on public health from exposure to pulsed and continuous wave (cw) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) associated with the use of electronic security and similar devices. The document summarises the results of the Concerted Action QLK4-1999-01214 “Development of advice to the EC on the risk to health of the general public from the use of security and similar devices employing pulsed and continuous electromagnetic fields” within the program Quality of Life (QoL), Key Action 4 “Environment and Health” of the Fifth Framework Programme of the European Commission (EC) (full report: ICNIRP 12/2002, ISBN: 3-934994-01-6). The document will provide advice to the EC and European Members States as an input to policy development. Secondary objectives include: a review of the scientific evidence of possible harm to human health from EMF exposure relevant to fields at the operating frequencies of such devices; a review of the applicability and limitations of currently available exposure assessment techniques and recommendations for future health risk assessment and research priorities.
Fonte International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor ICNIRP
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://www.icnirp.org/en/
publications/article/security-devices-eu-report-2002.html
Referência
Data Janeiro 2002
Título Interim Guidelines on Limits of Human Exposure to Airborne Ultrasound
Resumo These guidelines are primarily aimed at protection against exposure from devices emitting limited to frequencies having one-third-octave bands and guidance is given on limits of human exposure to airborne acoustic energy in the ultrasound range. Adverse health effects of exposure to airborne acoustic energy at levels normally encountered have been reported only at frequencies below 100 kHz and nearly all below 50 kHz. Thus, this standard has been limited to frequencies having one third-octave bands with mid frequencies from 20 kHz to 100 kHz.
Fonte International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP)
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://www.icnirp.org/
cms/upload/publications/INIRCUltrasound.PDF
Referência
Data Janeiro 1984
Título Static and Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Fields
Resumo Presentation from World Health Organization, that reviews our current state of knowledge of fields that are either static or have a frequency below 300 Hz. These frequencies are particularly important from a public health standpoint because of their widespread use for the generation and transmission of electrical power.
Fonte World Health Organization (WHO)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor World Health Organization (WHO)
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://www.who.int/
peh-emf/about/en/Static_and_ELF_Fields.pdf
Referência
Data Janeiro 2004
2020-11-17T19:28:42+00:00
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