Limites de Exposição à Radiação Eletromagnética

Documentos (recomendações, normas, entre outros) de diversas entidades internacionais acerca dos limites de exposição à radiação eletromagnética.

Título Interim Guidelines on Limits of Human Exposure to Airborne Ultrasound
Resumo These guidelines are primarily aimed at protection against exposure from devices emitting limited to frequencies having one-third-octave bands and guidance is given on limits of human exposure to airborne acoustic energy in the ultrasound range. Adverse health effects of exposure to airborne acoustic energy at levels normally encountered have been reported only at frequencies below 100 kHz and nearly all below 50 kHz. Thus, this standard has been limited to frequencies having one third-octave bands with mid frequencies from 20 kHz to 100 kHz.
Fonte International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP)
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://www.icnirp.org/
cms/upload/publications/INIRCUltrasound.PDF
Referência
Data Janeiro 1984
Título NIEHS Report on Health Effects from Exposure to Power-Line Frequency Electric and Magnetic Fields
Resumo In 1992, under the Energy Policy Act (PL 102-486, Section 2118), the U.S. Congress instructed the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), National Institutes of Health and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to direct and manage a program of research and analysis aimed at providing scientific evidence to clarify the potential for health risks from exposure to ELF-EMF. This resulted in formation of the EMF Research and Public Information Dissemination Program (EMF-RAPID Program). The EMF-RAPID Program had three basic components: 1) a research program focusing on health effects research primarily through mechanistic studies of ELF-EMF and engineering research targeting measurement, characterization and management of ELF-EMF; 2) information compilation and dissemination through brochures, public outreach and an ELF-EMF information line for communicating with the public; and 3) a health assessment including an analysis of the research data aimed at summarizing the strength of the evidence for evaluation of any hazard possibly arising from exposure to ELF-EMF. The NIEHS was directed to oversee the health effects research and evaluation and the DOE was given responsibility for engineering research aimed at characterizing and mitigating these fields. Under the Energy Policy Act, the Director of the NIEHS is mandated upon completion of the EMF-RAPID Program to provide a report outlining the possible human health risks associated with exposure to ELF-EMF. This document responds to this requirement of the law.
Fonte National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) EMF Research and Public Information Dissemination Program (EMF-RAPID)
Origem Estados Unidos da América
Autor/Editor Dr. Kenneth Olden
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://www.bpa.gov/
Projects/Projects/I-5/2012documents/EMF-NIEHS-execsum.pdf
Referência NIH Publication No. 99-4493
Data Maio 1999
Título Manual for Measuring Occupational Electric and Magnetic Field Exposures
Resumo The purpose of this manual is to assist investigators in developing methods for occupational exposure assessments for electric and magnetic fields (EMF). Scientific reports that associate EMF with increased risks of various diseases have led to exposure assessments for the purposes of research, source assessment, and the surveillance of worker exposures. To provide guidance for these studies, methods that have been used successfully to measure EMF are summarized and presented in a standard format. The scope of the manual is methods for measuring occupational EMF with frequencies below 30 kHz. This covers most fields resulting directly from DC or 50/60 Hz AC electricity, as well as common electric and electronic equipment such as Video Display Terminals (VDT). In this manual, exposure assessment protocols are classified either as complete methods or partial methods. Complete methods are sets of instructions for the sampling strategy, calibration, measurement, data management and calculation of EMF exposure metrics. The exposure metric and other information about the method are contained in a summary table accompanied by a critique of the method’s strengths and weaknesses. Partial methods are essentially parts of a full method that emphasize important aspects of EMF exposure assessments: sampling strategies, spot measurement surveys, personal monitoring, area monitoring, measuring EMF characteristics, measuring EMFs from sources, walkthrough monitoring, quality control, calibration, data management, and calculating exposure metrics. By combining aspects of these complete and partial methods, industrial hygienists and other investigators can assemble protocols specifically tailored to assess EMF exposures for different purposes, applications, and work environments.
Fonte National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
Origem Estados Unidos da América
Autor/Editor Bowman et al.
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/98-154
Referência NIOSH Publication No. 98-154
Data Outubro 1998
Título Medical electrical equipment – Part 1-2: General requirements for basic safety and essential performance – Collateral Standard: Electromagnetic disturbances – Requirements and tests
Resumo IEC 60601-1-2:2014+A1:2020 applies to the basic safety and essential performance of Medical Equipment (ME) equipment and ME systems in the presence of electromagnetic disturbances and to electromagnetic disturbances emitted by me equipment and me systems. This collateral standard to IEC 60601-1 specifies general requirements and tests for basic safety and essential performance with regard to electromagnetic disturbances and for electromagnetic emissions of ME equipment and ME systems. They are in addition to the requirements of the general standard IEC 60601-1 and serve as the basis for particular standards. This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition of IEC 60601-1-2, and constitutes a technical revision.
Fonte International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) / International Organization for Standardization (isso)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor IEC Technical Sub-Committee 62A
Disponibilidade Disponível por encomenda
Endereço https://webstore.iec.ch/publication/67554
Referência IEC 60601-1-2:2014+AMD1:2020
Data Setembro 2020
Título Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields (100 kHz to 300 GHz)
Resumo Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are used to enable a number of modern devices, including mobile telecommunications infrastructure and phones, Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth. As radiofrequency EMFs at sufficiently high power levels can adversely affect health, ICNIRP published Guidelines in 1998 for human exposure to time-varying EMFs up to 300 GHz, which included the radiofrequency EMF spectrum. Since that time, there has been a considerable body of science further addressing the relation between radiofrequency EMFs and adverse health outcomes, as well as significant developments in the technologies that use radiofrequency EMFs. Accordingly, ICNIRP has updated the radiofrequency EMF part of the 1998 Guidelines. This document presents these revised Guidelines, which provide protection for humans from exposure to EMFs from 100 kHz to 300 GHz.
Fonte International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor ICNIRP
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://www.icnirp.org/
cms/upload/publications/ICNIRPrfgdl2020.pdf
Referência Health Physics 118(5): 483–524; 2020
Data Maio 2020
2020-11-17T19:28:42+00:00
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