Limites de Exposição à Radiação Eletromagnética

Documentos (recomendações, normas, entre outros) de diversas entidades internacionais acerca dos limites de exposição à radiação eletromagnética.

Limites de Exposição

Geral

Título Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields (100 kHz to 300 GHz)
Resumo Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are used to enable a number of modern devices, including mobile telecommunications infrastructure and phones, Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth. As radiofrequency EMFs at sufficiently high power levels can adversely affect health, ICNIRP published Guidelines in 1998 for human exposure to time-varying EMFs up to 300 GHz, which included the radiofrequency EMF spectrum. Since that time, there has been a considerable body of science further addressing the relation between radiofrequency EMFs and adverse health outcomes, as well as significant developments in the technologies that use radiofrequency EMFs. Accordingly, ICNIRP has updated the radiofrequency EMF part of the 1998 Guidelines. This document presents these revised Guidelines, which provide protection for humans from exposure to EMFs from 100 kHz to 300 GHz.
Fonte International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor ICNIRP
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://www.icnirp.org/
cms/upload/publications/ICNIRPrfgdl2020.pdf
Referência Health Physics 118(5): 483–524; 2020
Data Maio 2020
Título Perguntas Frequentes (FAQs) relativas às Recomendações ICNIRP 2020 para Campos Eletromagnéticos de Radiofrequência
Resumo Respostas a Perguntas Frequentes relativas às Recomendações ICNIRP 2020 para Campos Eletromagnéticos de Radiofrequência
Fonte International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor ICNIRP
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://www.icnirp.org/
cms/upload/publications/ICNIRPrfgdl2020.pdf
Referência RF EMF FAQs in Portuguese
Data Março 2021
Título Maximum Exposure Levels to Radiofrequency Fields – 3 kHz to 300 GHz
Resumo This Radiation Protection Standard (hereafter referred to as ‘the Standard’) sets limits for human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) fields in the frequency range 3 kHz to 300 GHz. The Standard includes: • mandatory basic restrictions for both occupational and general public exposure involving all or part of the human body; • indicative reference levels for measurable quantities derived from the basic restrictions; • approaches for verification of compliance with the Standard; • requirements for management of risk in occupational exposure and measures for protection of the general public.
Fonte Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA)
Origem Austrália
Autor/Editor ARPANSA
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://www.arpansa.gov.au/
sites/default/files/legacy/pubs/rps/rps3.pdf
Referência Radiation Protection Series Publication No. 3
Data Maio 2016
Título Limits of Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Energy in the Frequency Range from 3 kHz to 300 GHz
Resumo The purpose of this code is to establish safety limits for human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) fields in the frequency range from 3 kHz to 300 GHz. The safety limits in this code apply to all individuals working at, or visiting, federally regulated sites. These guidelines may also be adopted by the provinces, industry or other interested parties. The Department of National Defence shall conform to the requirements of this safety code, except in such cases where it considers such compliance to have a detrimental effect on its activities in support of training and operations of the Canadian Forces. This code has been adopted as the scientific basis for equipment certification and RF field exposure compliance specifications outlined in Industry Canada’s regulatory documents (1–3), that govern the use of wireless devices in Canada, such as cell phones, cell towers (base stations) and broadcast antennas. Safety Code 6 does not apply to the deliberate exposure for treatment of patients by, or under the direction of, medical practitioners. Safety Code 6 is not intended for use as a product performance specification document, as the limits in this safety code are for controlling human exposure and are independent of the source of RF energy.
Fonte Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety (HECS)
Origem Canadá
Autor/Editor Consumer and Clinical Radiation Protection Bureau
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://www.canada.ca/
content/dam/hc-sc/migration/hc-sc/ewh-semt/alt_formats/pdf/consult/_2014/safety_code_6-code_securite_6/final-finale-eng.pdf
Referência Safety Code 6 (2015)
Data Junho 2015
Título Diretiva 2013/35/UE do Parlamento Europeu e do Conselho relativa às prescrições mínimas de segurança e saúde em matéria de exposição dos trabalhadores aos riscos devidos aos agentes físicos (campos eletromagnéticos)
Resumo A presente diretiva estabelece as prescrições mínimas em matéria de proteção dos trabalhadores contra os riscos para a segurança e a saúde a que estão, ou podem vir a estar, sujeitos devido à exposição a campos eletromagnéticos durante o trabalho.
Fonte Parlamento Europeu e Conselho da União Europeia
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor M. Schulz and A. Shatter
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://eur-lex.europa.eu/
LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2013:179:0001:0021:PT:PDF
Referência Jornal Oficial da União Europeias, L179/1, 2013/35/EU
Data Junho 2013
Título Statement on the “Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Time‐Varying Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields (up to 300 GHz)”
Resumo Since the publication of the ICNIRP “Guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields (up to 300 GHz)” (ICNIRP 1998) many scientific studies of the effects of such fields have been published. In the frequency range up to approximately 100 kHz several scientific reviews and health hazard assessments have been undertaken by organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO 2006, 2007), national radiation protection institutions (HPA 2006, 2008), and by ICNIRP (2003). For static and extremely low frequency (ELF) fields, ICNIRP’s process of reviewing its guidelines is, respectively, finalized (ICNIRP 2009) or in progress. ICNIRP reconfirms the 1998 basic restrictions in the frequency range 100 kHz–300 GHz until further notice.
Fonte International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor ICNIRP
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://www.icnirp.org/
cms/upload/publications/ICNIRPStatementEMF.pdf
Referência Health Physics 97(3):257‐258; 2009
Data Setembro 2009
Título IEEE Standard for Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz
Resumo Recommendations to protect against harmful effects in human beings exposed to electromagnetic fields in the frequency range from 3 kHz to 300 GHz are provided in this standard. These recommendations are intended to apply in controlled environments and for general population exposure. These recommendations are not intended to apply to the exposure of patients by or under the direction of physicians and medical professionals.
Fonte Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) – International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety (SCC39)
Origem Estados Unidos da América
Autor/Editor IEEE – ICES
Disponibilidade Disponível por encomenda
Endereço https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/1626482
Referência IEEE Std. C95.1-2005
Data Abril 2006
Título Model Legislation for Electromagnetic Fields Protection
Resumo In order to assist countries not having appropriate legislation to protect their population, the International EMF Project has developed a Model Act and a Model Regulation that provide the legal framework to provide this protection. An important aspect of this model legislation is that it uses international standards that limits EMF exposure of people (ICNIRP exposure standards) and international standards that limit the emissions of EMF from devices (IEC and IEEE device emission standards).
Fonte World Health Organization (WHO)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor WHO – EMF Project
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://www.who.int/
peh-emf/standards/EMF_model_legislation[1].pdf
Referência
Data Janeiro 2006
Título Advice on Limiting Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields (0-300GHz)
Resumo The National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) has the responsability for providing advice on exposure guidelines for electromagnetic fields (EMFs). As part of its policy of ongoing evaluation of scientific evidence and health risk assessment, NRPB has reviewed its advice on limiting exposure to EMFs and, at request of the Department of Health, has particulary addressed the issues of uncertainty in the science and aspects of precaution. As a result of this review, NRPB recommends the adoption of the guidelines of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) for limiting exposure to EMFs.
Fonte National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB)
Origem Reino Unido
Autor/Editor NRPB
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/
20140713082604/http://www.hpa.org.uk/Publications/
Radiation/NPRBArchive/DocumentsOfTheNRPB/Absd1502
Referência NRPB Vol.15 No.2
Data Janeiro 2004
Título Implementation report on the Council Recommendation limiting the public exposure to electromagnetic fields (0 Hz to 300 GHz)
Resumo The Commission was invited in the Council Recommendation (1999/519/EC)3 to “keep the matters covered by this recommendation under review, with a view to its revision and updating, taking into account also possible effects, which are currently the object of research, including relevant aspects of precaution and to prepare a report, within five years, taking into account the reports of the Member States and the latest scientific data and advice”. The aim of this report serves to update the European Parliament, the Council and the Committee on Environment, Public Health and Consumer Policy on the work undertaken at a Community level by the Commission and Member States since the Council Recommendation of 12 July 1999 abovementioned. This report also aims to provide policy makers across the Union with a synopsis of the various measures being employed by the Member and Accession States, leading to a better understanding of the scope of the current measures. And indeed, the review process which is required after a period of five years following the adoption of the Recommendation has been initiated earlier to take into account mounting public concern, the development of new technologies and the necessity to respond more rapidly to new scientific evidence.
Fonte Conselho da União Europeia
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor Conselho da União Europeia
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://ec.europa.eu/health/
archive/ph_determinants/environment/emf/implement_rep_en.pdf
Referência
Data Janeiro 2003
Título IEEE Standard for Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields, 0 to 3 kHz
Resumo Recommendations are given to prevent harmful effects in human beings exposed to electromagnetic fields in the frequency range of 0-3 kHZ. The recommendations are intended to apply to exposures of the general public, as well as to individuals in controlled environments. They are not intended to apply to the purposeful exposure of patients by or under the direction of practitioners of the healing arts and may not be protective with respect to the use of medical devices or implants. A rationale that describes how the recommendations were arrived at, and the factors taken into account in formulating them, is included.
Fonte Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety (ICES)
Origem Estados Unidos da América
Autor/Editor IEEE – ICES
Disponibilidade Disponível por encomenda
Endereço https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/1046043
Referência IEEE Std. C95.6-2002
Data Outubro 2002
Título Recomendação do Conselho de 12 de Julho de 1999, relativa à limitação da exposição da população aos campos eletromagnéticos (0 Hz – 300 GHz)
Resumo Há a necessidade de estabelecer, sob a forma de recomendações dirigidas a todos os Estados Membros, uma política comunitária relativa à exposição aos campos eletromagnéticos com o objetivo de proteger o público. Esta recomendação estabelece medidas legislativas com o objetivo de limitar a exposição de trabalhadores e público em geral à radiação eletromagnética não ionizante. Esta recomendação tem o objetivo de proteger a saúde pública, e, portanto, aplica-se, em particular, a áreas relevantes onde a população em geral passa períodos de tempo significativos em relação aos efeitos cobertos pela recomendação.
Fonte Conselho da União Europeia
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor S. NIINISTÖ
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://op.europa.eu/pt/
publication-detail/-/publication/9509b04f-1df0-4221-bfa2-c7af77975556
Referência Jornal Oficial das Comunidades Europeias, L199/59, (1999/519/CE)
Data Julho 1999
Título Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Time-Varying Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields (up to 300 GHz)
Resumo The main objective of this publication is to establish guidelines for limiting EMF exposure that will provide protection against known adverse health effects. An adverse health effect causes detectable impairment of the health of the exposed individual or of his or her offspring; a biological effect, on the other hand, may or may not result in an adverse health effect. Studies on both direct and indirect effects of EMF are described; direct effects result from direct interaction of fields with the body, indirect effects involve interactions with an object at a different electric potential from the body. Results of laboratory and epidemiological studies, basic exposure criteria, and reference levels for practical hazard assessment are discussed, and the guidelines presented apply to occupational and public exposure.
Fonte International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor ICNIRP
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://www.icnirp.org/
cms/upload/publications/ICNIRPemfgdl.pdf
Referência Health Physics 74 (4):494-522; 1998
Data Janeiro 1998
Título Biological Effects and Exposure Criteria for Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields
Resumo NCRP Report No. 86 presents the result of a comprehensive evaluation of the available literature on the biological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. This Report begins with a discussion of studies of biological effects at the molecular level and continues to progressively larger scales of interaction, covering macromolecular and cellular effects, chromosomal and mutagenic effects and carcinogenic effects. The Report then goes on to treat systemic effects such as those relating to reproduction, growth and development, hematopoesis and immunology, endocrinology and the autonomic nerve function, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular effects, interaction of electromagnetic fields with the central nervous system and the special senses. The Report treats neurological effects and assesses studies relating to behavioral effects. The careful evaluation of the research studies forms the basis for the exposure criteria enunciated in the Report. These specify permissible levels, not only for individuals exposed occupationally, but for members of the general public exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation.
Fonte National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP)
Origem Estados Unidos da América
Autor/Editor NCRP
Disponibilidade Disponível por encomenda
Endereço https://ncrponline.org/shop/reports/
report-no-086-biological-effects-and-exposure-criteria-for-radiofrequency-electromagnetic-fields-1986
Referência NCRP Report No. 86
Data Janeiro 1986

Dispositivos Médicos

Título Medical electrical equipment – Part 1-2: General requirements for basic safety and essential performance – Collateral Standard: Electromagnetic disturbances – Requirements and tests
Resumo IEC 60601-1-2:2014+A1:2020 applies to the basic safety and essential performance of Medical Equipment (ME) equipment and ME systems in the presence of electromagnetic disturbances and to electromagnetic disturbances emitted by me equipment and me systems. This collateral standard to IEC 60601-1 specifies general requirements and tests for basic safety and essential performance with regard to electromagnetic disturbances and for electromagnetic emissions of ME equipment and ME systems. They are in addition to the requirements of the general standard IEC 60601-1 and serve as the basis for particular standards. This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition of IEC 60601-1-2, and constitutes a technical revision.
Fonte International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) / International Organization for Standardization (isso)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor IEC Technical Sub-Committee 62A
Disponibilidade Disponível por encomenda
Endereço https://webstore.iec.ch/publication/67554
Referência IEC 60601-1-2:2014+AMD1:2020
Data Setembro 2020
Título Implants for surgery – Active implantable medical devices – Part 1: General requirements for safety, marking and for information to be provided by the manufacturer
Resumo This Part 1 of EN 45502 specifies requirements that are generally applicable to ACTIVE IMPLANTABLE MEDICAL DEVICES. NOTE 1 For particular types of ACTIVE IMPLANTABLE MEDICAL DEVICES, these general requirements are supplemented or modified by the requirements of particular standards which form additional parts of this European Standard. The tests that are specified in EN 45502 are type tests and are to be carried out on samples of an ACTIVE IMPLANTABLE MEDICAL DEVICE to show compliance. This Part 1 of EN 45502 is applicable not only to ACTIVE IMPLANTABLE MEDICAL DEVICES that are electrically powered but also to those powered by other energy sources (for example by gas pressure or by springs). This Part 1 of EN 45502 is also applicable to some non-implantable parts and accessories of the ACTIVE IMPLANTABLE MEDICAL DEVICES. NOTE 2 The terminology used in this European Standard is intended to be consistent with the terminology of Directive 90/385/EEC. NOTE 3 In this European Standard, terms printed in small capital letters are used as defined in Clause 3. Where a defined term is used as a qualifier in another term, it is not printed in small capital letters unless the concept thus qualified is also defined.
Fonte European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor CEN/CLC/JWG AIMD
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://www.iso.org/standard/52804.html
Referência EN 45502-1:2015
Data Maio 2015
Título Perguntas Frequentes (FAQs) relativas às Recomendações ICNIRP 2020 para Campos Eletromagnéticos de Radiofrequência
Resumo Respostas a Perguntas Frequentes relativas às Recomendações ICNIRP 2020 para Campos Eletromagnéticos de Radiofrequência
Fonte International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor ICNIRP
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://www.icnirp.org/
cms/upload/publications/ICNIRPrfgdl2020.pdf
Referência RF EMF FAQs in Portuguese
Data Março 2021
Título Microwave Ovens and their Hazards
Resumo Information Sheet discussing the operation and safety aspects of microwave ovens used in the home.
Fonte Canadia Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS)
Origem Canadá
Autor/Editor CCOHS
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://www.ccohs.ca/
oshanswers/phys_agents/microwave_ovens.html
Referência
Data Agosto 2018
Título Implants for surgery – Active implantable medical devices – Part 1: General requirements for safety, marking and for information to be provided by the manufacturer
Resumo This Part 1 of EN 45502 specifies requirements that are generally applicable to ACTIVE IMPLANTABLE MEDICAL DEVICES. NOTE 1 For particular types of ACTIVE IMPLANTABLE MEDICAL DEVICES, these general requirements are supplemented or modified by the requirements of particular standards which form additional parts of this European Standard. The tests that are specified in EN 45502 are type tests and are to be carried out on samples of an ACTIVE IMPLANTABLE MEDICAL DEVICE to show compliance. This Part 1 of EN 45502 is applicable not only to ACTIVE IMPLANTABLE MEDICAL DEVICES that are electrically powered but also to those powered by other energy sources (for example by gas pressure or by springs). This Part 1 of EN 45502 is also applicable to some non-implantable parts and accessories of the ACTIVE IMPLANTABLE MEDICAL DEVICES. NOTE 2 The terminology used in this European Standard is intended to be consistent with the terminology of Directive 90/385/EEC. NOTE 3 In this European Standard, terms printed in small capital letters are used as defined in Clause 3. Where a defined term is used as a qualifier in another term, it is not printed in small capital letters unless the concept thus qualified is also defined.
Fonte European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC)
Origem Internacional
Autor/Editor CEN/CLC/JWG AIMD
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://www.iso.org/standard/52804.html
Referência EN 45502-1:2015
Data Maio 2015
Título Maximum Exposure Levels to Radiofrequency Fields – 3 kHz to 300 GHz
Resumo This Radiation Protection Standard (hereafter referred to as ‘the Standard’) sets limits for human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) fields in the frequency range 3 kHz to 300 GHz. The Standard includes: • mandatory basic restrictions for both occupational and general public exposure involving all or part of the human body; • indicative reference levels for measurable quantities derived from the basic restrictions; • approaches for verification of compliance with the Standard; • requirements for management of risk in occupational exposure and measures for protection of the general public.
Fonte Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA)
Origem Austrália
Autor/Editor ARPANSA
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://www.arpansa.gov.au/
sites/default/files/legacy/pubs/rps/rps3.pdf
Referência Radiation Protection Series Publication No. 3
Data Maio 2016
2020-11-17T19:28:42+00:00
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