Documentos (recomendações, normas, entre outros) de diversas entidades internacionais acerca dos limites de exposição à radiação eletromagnética.
Electromagnetic Compatibility of Medical Devices with Mobile Communications
The compatibility of mobile communication equipment with medical devices is an area where much published information and guidance is conflicting. We have hence organised a large study, based on research conducted at 18 locations including hospitals and MDA evaluation centres. Data were gathered for 178 different models of medical device using a wide range of radio handsets. Overall, in 23% of tests medical devices suffered electromagnetic interference (EMI) from handsets. 43% of these interference incidents would have had a direct impact on patient care, and were rated as serious.
Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA)
OET Bulletin 65, Supplement C – Evaluating Compliance with FCC Guidelines for Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields, Additional Information for Evaluating Compliance of Mobile and Portable Devices with FCC Limits for Human Exposure
In August, 1996, the Commission adopted a Report and Order in ET Docket 93-62 amending its rules for evaluating the environmental effects of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields. Specifically, the Commission adopted new guidelines and procedures for evaluating human exposure to RF emissions from FCC-regulated transmitters and facilities. As a part of this proceeding, new limits were adopted for human exposure to RF emissions from certain mobile and portable devices. Two subsequent FCC Orders were issued to refine and clarify the decisions adopted in the original Report and Order. A revised version of OET Bulletin 65, “Evaluating Compliance with FCC Guidelines for Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields” was also issued. One of the areas discussed in Bulletin 65 is compliance with the limits adopted by the Commission for safe exposure to RF emissions due to mobile and portable devices such as non-fixed wireless transmitters and hand-held cellular telephones. The first edition of Supplement C (97-01) was released in 1997. The purpose of this revised supplement is to provide parties filing applications for equipment authorization with guidance on complying with the latest requirements using up-to-date test procedures. This supplement is not intended, however, to establish mandatory procedures, and other methods and procedures may be acceptable if based on sound engineering practice.
Guidelines for the Measurement of Radiofrequency Fields at Frequencies from 3 kHz to 300 GHz
This document outlines some principles and background information for the measurement of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. It also provides a number of recommended measurement procedures for the different types of telecommunication services. The techniques for both the near field and far field measurements are based on the instrumentation that is currently available. The recommended procedures are not considered to be appropriate for the measurement of electromagnetic fields in the reactive near field region.
Regulamento relativo à metodologia de elaboração e execução dos planos de monitorização e medição dos níveis de intensidade dos campos electromagnéticos resultantes da emissão de estações de radiocomunicações
O regulamento define a metodologia de elaboração e execução dos planos de monitorização e medição dos níveis de intensidade dos campos eletromagnéticos resultantes da emissão de estações de radiocomunicações, nos termos do n.º 2 do artigo 12.º do Decreto-Lei n.º 11/2003, de 18 de Janeiro. A metodologia definida pelo presente regulamento aplica-se aos planos de monitorização e medição a elaborar, nos termos do n.º 1 do artigo 12.º do decreto-lei, pelas entidades habilitadas a instalar e utilizar estações de radiocomunicações afetas à prestação de serviços de comunicações eletrónicas acessíveis ao público.
Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurements
When reporting the result of a measurement of a physical quantity, some quantitative indication of the result has to be given to assess its reliability and to allow comparisons to be made. The Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement establishes general rules for evaluating and expressing uncertainty in measurement that can be followed at many levels of accuracy and in many fields.
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) / International Organization for Standardization (isso)