Limites de Exposição à Radiação Eletromagnética

Documentos (recomendações, normas, entre outros) de diversas entidades internacionais acerca dos limites de exposição à radiação eletromagnética.

Título OET Bulletin Number 56 (Fourth Edition August 1999) – Questions and Answers about Biological Effects and Potential Hazards of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields
Resumo This is an informative bulletin written as a result of increasing interest and concern of the public with respect to this issue. The expanding use of radiofrequency technology has resulted in speculation concerning the alleged “electromagnetic pollution” of the environment and the potential dangers of exposure to non-ionizing radiation. This publication is designed to provide factual information to the public by answering some of the most commonly asked questions. It includes the latest information on FCC guidelines for human exposure to RF energy.
Fonte Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
Origem Estados Unidos da América
Autor/Editor Robert F. Cleveland,Jr., Jerry L. Ulcek
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://transition.fcc.gov/Bureaus/
Engineering_Technology/Documents/bulletins/oet56/oet56e4.pdf
Referência OET Bulletin Number 56 (Fourth Edition August 1999)
Data Agosto 1999
Título 5G NR, The Next Generation Wireless Access Technology
Resumo 5G NR: The Next Generation Wireless Access Technology, Second Edition, follows the authors’ highly celebrated books on 3G and 4G and provides a new level of insight into 5G NR. After background discussion of 5G, including requirements, spectrum aspects, and the standardization timeline, all technology features of the first phase of NR are described in detail. The book covers the NR physical-layer structure and higher-layer protocols, RF and spectrum aspects, and co-existence and interworking with LTE. The book provides a good foundation in NR and different NR technology components, giving insight into why a certain solution has been selected.
Fonte Elsevier
Origem Reino Unido
Autor/Editor Erik Dahlman, Stefan Parkvall, Johan Skold
Disponibilidade Disponível por encomenda
Endereço https://www.elsevier.com/books/
5g-nr/dahlman/978-0-12-822320-8
Referência Academic Press, London, UK
Data Setembro 2020
Título American National Standard for Methods of Measurement of Compatibility between Wireless Communication Devices and Hearing Aids
Resumo This standard applies to both wireless communications devices (WDs) and hearing aids. It sets forth uniform methods of measurement and parametric requirements for the electromagnetic and operational compatibility of hearing aids and WDs, including cellular phones, personal communications service (PCS), and voice-over-Internet-protocol (VoIP) devices, operating in the range of 614 MHz to 6 GHz.
Fonte Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Origem Estados Unidos da América
Autor/Editor IEEE – Committee on Electromagnetic Compatibility
Disponibilidade Disponível por encomenda
Endereço https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8926595
Referência ANSI C63.19-2019
Data Novembro 2019

Interferência e Compatibilidade Eletromagnética

Título American National Standard for Methods of Measurement of Compatibility between Wireless Communication Devices and Hearing Aids
Resumo This standard applies to both wireless communications devices (WDs) and hearing aids. It sets forth uniform methods of measurement and parametric requirements for the electromagnetic and operational compatibility of hearing aids and WDs, including cellular phones, personal communications service (PCS), and voice-over-Internet-protocol (VoIP) devices, operating in the range of 614 MHz to 6 GHz.
Fonte Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Origem Estados Unidos da América
Autor/Editor IEEE – Committee on Electromagnetic Compatibility
Disponibilidade Disponível por encomenda
Endereço https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8926595
Referência ANSI C63.19-2019
Data Novembro 2019
Título American National Standard Recommended Practice for an On-Site, Ad Hoc Test Method for Estimating Electromagnetic Immunity of Medical Devices to Radiated Radio-Frequency (RF) Emissions from RF Transmitters
Resumo A guide to evaluating electromagnetic immunity of medical devices against radiated radio-frequency (RF) emissions from common RF transmitters is provided in this recommended practice (e.g., two-way radios; walkie-talkies; mobile phones; wireless-enabled tablets, e-readers, laptop computers, and similar devices; RFID readers; networked mp3 players; two-way pagers; and wireless personal digital assistants [PDAs]). A comprehensive test or a guarantee is not provided by this protocol but, instead, a basic evaluation is given that can help identify medical devices that might be particularly vulnerable to interference from common RF transmitters.
Fonte Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) – International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety (SCC39)
Origem Estados Unidos da América
Autor/Editor IEEE – Committee on Electromagnetic Compatibility
Disponibilidade Disponível por encomenda
Endereço https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/6840284
Referência ANSI C63.18-2014
Data Junho 2014
Título Diretiva 2014/30/UE do Parlamento Europeu e do Conselho de 26 de fevereiro de 2014 relativa à harmonização da legislação dos Estados-Membros respeitante à compatibilidade eletromagnética (reformulação)
Resumo A presente diretiva regulamenta a compatibilidade eletromagnética dos equipamentos e tem como objetivo assegurar o funcionamento do mercado interno, exigindo que os equipamentos cumpram um nível adequado de compatibilidade eletromagnética.
Fonte Conselho da União Europeia/Parlamento Europeu
Origem Europa
Autor/Editor Conselho da União Europeia/Parlamento Europeu
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://eur-lex.europa.eu/
legal-content/PT/TXT/?uri=CELEX:32014L0030
Referência Jornal Oficial da União Europeia, L 96/79, de 29/3/2014 (2014/30/EU)
Data Fevereiro 2014
Título Radiofrequency Interference with Medical Devices
Resumo The past few years have seen increased reports that medical devices, such as pacemakers, apnea monitors, electrically powered wheelchairs, etc., have failed to operate correctly because of interference from various emitters of radiofrequency energy. This condition is called radiofrequency interference (RFI). The consequences of these failures range from inconvenience to serious injuries and death. Reasons for this problem are twofold: 1) increasing numbers of electronically controlled medical devices with inadequate electronic protection against RFI, and 2) a significant increase in the number of RF sources in the environment. Medical devices are widely used outside the hospital and may be attached to, or implanted in, patients. Portable wireless communications equipment, including cellular phones, handheld transceivers, and vehicle mounted transceivers, comprise one of the largest sources of RFI. Some medical devices are especially sensitive to the type of digital modulation that some of the wireless communications devices utilize. (…) COMAR recommends that the various parties involved in the manufacture and use of RFI prone medical devices take steps to avoid serious RFI problems that may lead to safety hazards. Medical device manufacturers should design and test their products to ensure conformance with current RFI standards and educate the users of their devices about the possible symptoms of potential RFI. If there exists the possibility of RFI problems to medical devices, steps should be taken to ensure that all sources of RF energy be kept at a sufficient distance.
Fonte Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Committee on Man and Radiation (COMAR)
Origem Estados Unidos da América
Autor/Editor IEEE – COMAR
Disponibilidade Disponível online
Endereço https://ewh.ieee.org/soc/embs/comar/interfer.pdf
Referência
Data Janeiro 1998
Título Electromagnetic Compatibility of Medical Devices with Mobile Communications
Resumo The compatibility of mobile communication equipment with medical devices is an area where much published information and guidance is conflicting. We have hence organised a large study, based on research conducted at 18 locations including hospitals and MDA evaluation centres. Data were gathered for 178 different models of medical device using a wide range of radio handsets. Overall, in 23% of tests medical devices suffered electromagnetic interference (EMI) from handsets. 43% of these interference incidents would have had a direct impact on patient care, and were rated as serious.
Fonte Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA)
Origem Reino Unido
Autor/Editor Medical Devices Agency (MDA)
Disponibilidade Disponível por encomenda
Endereço https://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20141205224003/
http://www.mhra.gov.uk/Publications/Safetyguidance/
DeviceBulletins/CON007365
Referência DB 9702
Data Março 1997

Sistemas de Comunicações

Título 5G NR, The Next Generation Wireless Access Technology
Resumo 5G NR: The Next Generation Wireless Access Technology, Second Edition, follows the authors’ highly celebrated books on 3G and 4G and provides a new level of insight into 5G NR. After background discussion of 5G, including requirements, spectrum aspects, and the standardization timeline, all technology features of the first phase of NR are described in detail. The book covers the NR physical-layer structure and higher-layer protocols, RF and spectrum aspects, and co-existence and interworking with LTE. The book provides a good foundation in NR and different NR technology components, giving insight into why a certain solution has been selected.
Fonte Elsevier
Origem Reino Unido
Autor/Editor Erik Dahlman, Stefan Parkvall, Johan Skold
Disponibilidade Disponível por encomenda
Endereço https://www.elsevier.com/books/
5g-nr/dahlman/978-0-12-822320-8
Referência Academic Press, London, UK
Data Setembro 2020
Título LTE for UMTS: OFDMA and SC-FDMA Based Radio Access
Resumo From the editors of the highly successful WCDMA for UMTS, this new book gives a complete and up-to-date overview of Long Term Evolution (LTE) in a systematic and clear manner. It starts with an in-depth explanation of the background and standardization process before moving on to examine the system architecture evolution (SAE). The basics of air interface modulation choices are introduced and key subjects such as 3GPP LTE physical layer and protocol solutions are described. Mobility aspects and radio resource management together with radio and end-to-end performance are assessed. The voice solution and voice capacity in LTE are also illustrated. Finally, the main differences between LTE TDD and FDD modes are examined and HSPA evolution in 3GPP Releases 7 and 8 is described. LTE for UMTS is one of the first books to provide a comprehensive guide to the standards and technologies of LTE. Key features of the book include: covers all the key aspects of LTE in a systematic manner; presents full description of 3GPP Release 8 LTE; examines the expected performance of LTE. Written by experts actively involved in the 3GPP standards and product development.
Fonte Elsevier
Origem Reino Unido
Autor/Editor Erik Dahlman, Stefan Parkvall, Johan Skold
Disponibilidade Disponível por encomenda
Endereço https://www.wiley.com/en-us/
LTE+for+UMTS%3A+OFDMA+and+SC+FDMA+Based+Radio
+Access-p-9780470745472
Referência Academic Press, London, UK
Data Abril 2009
Título WCDMA for UMTS: HSPA Evolution and LTE, 5th Edition
Resumo Written by the leading experts in the field, the best selling book on UMTS is now updated to cover 3GPP High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) evolution (HSPA+) in Release 7 and on-going Long Term Evolution (LTE) activity for Release 8. These technologies enhance the capabilities of the existing WCDMA/HSPA networks to offer higher data rates beyond 100Mbps. WCDMA for UMTS, Fourth Edition also covers 3GPP WCDMA Release 99, High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) in Release 5 and High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) in Release 6, whih are already deployed commercially. Multimedia Broadcast Multicast System (MBMS) is also described in detail.
Fonte John Wiley
Origem Reino Unido
Autor/Editor H. Holma, A. Toskala
Disponibilidade Disponível por encomenda
Endereço https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/
doi/book/10.1002/9780470669501
Referência John Wiley, Chichester, UK
Data Agosto 2010
Título The GSM System for Mobile Communications
Resumo The digital standard known as the Global System for Mobile (GSM) has captured a large share of the global cellular market. This book aims to bridge the gap between a reader’s basic knowledge of telecommunications and the complexities of the 5000-page GSM technical specification. It describes the system as a whole, covering all aspects of the standard, including mobile stations, switching equipment, the radio interface, infrastructure, transmission methods, and signalling protocols. System architects involved in the design of personal communications systems will find the book to be a complete description of the GSM communications system. It also may serve as a general introduction to digital cellular systems.
Fonte ETSI
Origem França
Autor/Editor Cell & Sys, Michel MOULY and Marie-Bernadette PAUTET
Disponibilidade Disponível por encomenda
Endereço https://www.amazon.com/exec/
obidos/ASIN/0945592159/acmorg-20
Referência M. Mouly et M.-B. Pautet, Palaiseau, France
Data Janeiro 1992
2020-11-17T19:28:42+00:00
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