Documentos acerca da exposição a outras fontes de radiação.
Artificial Tanning Sunbeds: risk and guidance
This is a practical guide, prepared by Craig Sinclair, World Health Organization (WHO), intended for government health authorities, to assist them in the development of public health policy in relation to sunbeds. In general, sunbeds predominantly emit UVA radiation, which is thought to be the least damaging of the UV radiation spectrum. However in recent years, sunbeds have been manufactured that produce higher levels of UVB to mimic the solar spectrum and speed the tanning process. Overexposure to UV radiation from the sun and artificial sources is of considerable public health concern. UV radiation plays an important role in the development of skin cancer, cataracts, and other eye conditions, and suppresses the immune system. Cumulative UV radiation also results in premature skin ageing. Estimates from the WHO show that sun exposure may have been a key contributor to the development of cataracts in up to 20% of people who have cataracts. While WHO does not recommend the use of UV tanning devices for cosmetic purposes, it is recognized that sunbeds continue to be available to the public. For this reason there is a need for guidance to reduce the risks associated with their use.
Biological and Health Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields from Video Display Terminals
Video display terminals (VDTs) are commonly used for information display together with a computer and keyboard. Questions have been raised about adverse health effects associated with the electric and magnetic fields found near the cathode ray tube (CRT) used in a VDT. Television receivers also use CRTs in a similar fashion but concerns about health effects have centered on the VDT, perhaps because it is usually used in closer proximity. Neither laboratory nor epidemiological research has shown convincing evidence that the electromagnetic fields emanating from VDTs adversely affected the health of VDT operators. Studies of effects on pregnant women using VDTs have failed to establish a link between VDT fields and miscarriages or birth defects. However, not all research issues have been settled and it will be valuable for research to continue until it is possible to come to a still firmer conclusion. This paper addresses health issues related to the electric and magnetic fields of VDTs. It was developed by the Committee on Man and Radiation (COMAR ) of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE ), and represents the considered judgment of an international group with expertise in the subject area. It updates an earlier statement on this topic that was issued in August 1990.
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Committee on Man and Radiation (COMAR)
This information sheet summarizes the current scientific understanding on the effects of exposure to EMF fields on the living environment, across the electromagnetic spectrum in the frequency range 0-300 GHz. This range covers all frequencies that are emitted into the environment through use of EMF technology. Recommendations are also given for further research to fill gaps in knowledge needed to better assess EMF environmental impacts.
Electromagnetic Fields and Public Health – Static electric and magnetic fields
The International EMF Project of the World Health Organization (WHO) has recently reviewed the health implications of high static field exposure and highlighted the importance of public health protection for medical staff and patients (particularly children and pregnant women) and workers in industries producing high field magnets (Environmental Health Criteria, 2006).
Extremely Low Frequency Fields – Environmental Health Criteria Monograph No.238
This EHC addresses the possible health effects of exposure to extremely low frequency (>0 Hz – 100 kHz) electric and magnetic fields. By far the majority of studies concern the health effects resulting from exposure to power frequency (50–60 Hz) magnetic fields; a few studies address the effects of exposure to power frequency electric fields. In addition, a number of studies have addressed the effects of exposure to the very low frequency (VLF, 3–30 kHz) switched gradient magnetic fields used in Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and, more commonly, the weaker VLF fields emitted by visual display units (VDU’s) and televisions.